The Port of Surabaya is the main city and capital of East Java province in Indonesia. Located on Java’s northeastern coast, it lies across the Surabaya Strait from the island of Madura. The Port of Surabaya lies at the mouth of the Mas River about 10 kilometers southwest of the Port of Gresik. It is Indonesia’s second biggest city and East Java’s most important commercial center.
The Port of Surabaya is one of the busiest ports in Java. It has a large shipyard, Indonesia’s main naval station, and several naval schools. Being East Java’s main trading port, the Port of Surabaya exports sugar, coffee, and tobacco. The city is also home to many office complexes and business centers. The City of Surabaya is made up of 31 sub-districts that contain 163 villages.
In 2007, about three million people lived in the Port of Surabaya.
In 1225, Chau Ju-Kua wrote about Surabaya, calling it Jungala. In the early 15th Century, Admiral Zheng He visited the area. In the 15th and 16th Centuries, the Port of Surabaya was a Sultanate with great political and military power. War ended with the Port of Surabaya being captured by Sultan Agung of Mataram in 1625. By this time, the only areas that Mataram did not control were the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch-held settlement of Batavia.
Over time, the Mataram Sultante grew weaker, and the Dutch East Indies Company took the Port of Surabaya over in 1743. As part of the Dutch colony, the Port of Surabaya became an important trading center and naval base.
In 1917, Port of Surabaya sailors and soldiers rebelled, but the revolt was quickly and brutally put down by the Dutch.
The Japanese captured the Port of Surabaya in 1942 during World War II. Allies bombed the city in 1944. After the war, Indonesian nationalists seized the Port of Surabaya; however, forces soon arrived to retake the Dutch colony.
In 1945, the Battle of Surabaya, one of the most important battles of the Indonesian war for independence, started when a British general was killed. When the rebels refused to surrender the city to Allied forces, the battle began. Thousands of people died during the Battle of Surabaya, which is now celebrated as “Heroes’ Day.” After many years and much international pressure, the Dutch relinquished and transferred sovereignty to Indonesia in 1949.
Today, about seven million people live in the area surrounding the Port of Surabaya, and three million live in the city. The Indonesian government is building a bridge between Surabaya and Madura Island that, when finished, will be the country’s longest bridge. Today Madura is accessible by a regular ferry services operating from the Port of Surabaya.