In addition to being the world's major oil exporting country, the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia has the Middle East's most diversified economies. With industrial exports destined for locations around the world, Saudia Arabia must have modern ports to handle large volumes of Cargo. Until 1976, the country's ports, including Jeddah Islamic Port, were managed by many different entities and were subject to different regulations and tariffs.
In order to improve and develop its ports, the government of Saudi Arabia created an independent Ports Authority linked directly to the Prime Minister in 1976. The Ports Authority quickly eliminated congestion at the country's ports. The port authority then reorganized Saudia Arabia's ports, making them important contributors to the national economy and a link with the international community. Jeddah Islamic Port is the country's busiest commercial port supporting foreign trade.
Beginning in late 1997, the Saudia Arabia Ports Authority started the process of privatization, shifting port operations and maintenance to the private sector. Today, Saudia Arabia's ports are managed and operated by private interests while the Port Authority plays a supervisory role.
Jeddah Islamic Port is Saudia Arabia's primary port serving the holy cities of Medina and Mecca. Jeddah Islamic Port is Saudia Arabia's busiest and oldest port. In addition to being the country's main commercial port, Jeddah Islamic Port is the main port of entry for pilgrims going to Mecca and Medina. For this reason, the Saudi government closely monitors Jeddah Islamic Port to ensure the comfort of pilgrims.
Established in 1976, Jeddah Islamic Port has grown from ten berths to 58 modern berths today. Jeddah Islamic Port's harbor is free of congestion. It covers an area of almost 2600 acres and contains 11.2 kilometers (seven miles) of berths with maximum draft of 16 meters (52.5 feet). Jeddah Islamic Port can accommodate the latest container vessels, and it is wide enough to anchor 135 ships at the same time. Jeddah Islamic Port contains almost 520 acres of open storage and almost 100 acres of covered storage, including 59 warehouses and sheds as well as storage tanks and silos.
Jeddah Islamic Port must approve the use of one of several anchorages. Anchorage W1 and W2 are cargo-working anchorages that require a pilot for entering or exiting Jeddah Islamic Port. Anchorage W2 is designated for a single vessel carrying explosives. Anchorage C is for vessels with dangerous cargoes. Anchorage D is designated for dry cargo vessels, and Anchorage E is for tank vessels. Anchorage E is also used for overflow traffic. Jeddah Islamic Port's Anchorages A and B are designated for authorized vessels only.
In 2011, Jeddah Islamic Port handled a total of just over 52 million (dead weight tons) DWT of cargo, including almost 35.1 million DWT of imports and 17 million DWT of exports. The vast majority of cargo handled in the Jeddah Islamic Port was 41.2 million DWT of containerized cargo, including 24.6 million DWT of imports and 16.6 million DWT of exports.
Bulk cargoes, excluding crude oil, handled in Jeddah Islamic Port included almost 5.6 million DWT of solid bulk and 390 thousand DWT of liquid bulk. Jeddah Islamic Port handled over 3.3 million DWT of general cargo, most of it imports, and almost 1.3 million DWT of roll-on/roll-off cargoes and vehicles. Finally, Jeddah Islamic Port handled about 206.6 thousand DWT of livestock. In 2011, 275.7 thousand passengers moved through Jeddah Islamic Port, including 133 thousand arrivals and 142.7 thousand departures.
Of the 35 million DWT of import cargoes moving through Jeddah Islamic Port, food and foodstuffs accounted for 10.4 million DWT. Miscellaneous cargoes of 10.6 million DWT were imported in 2011, including over 2 million TEUs of containerized cargo. Other imports in Jeddah Islamic Port included construction materials (8.4 million DWT), consumer goods (4.4 million DWT), and vehicles (1.3 million DWT).
Of the total of almost 17 million DWT in exports through Jeddah Islamic Port in 2011, over 2.6 million DWT were petrochemicals, and more than 1.6 million DWT were refined products. Empty containers and chassis accounted for 1.3 million DWT. Industrial products accounted for over 1.2 million DWT in 2011. Other exports through Jeddah Islamic Port included 529 thousand DWT of food and foodstuffs, 91.3 thousand DWT of vehicles, and almost five thousand DWT of liquefied gas. Exports through Jeddah Islamic Port in 2011 included more than 1.9 million TEUs of containerized cargo.
Jeddah Islamic Port has a total of 58 berths specializing in different types of cargo. The North and South container terminals have 11 berths. Jeddah Islamic Port's newest international container terminal, the Red Sea Gateway Terminal, has four berths. Jeddah Islamic Port contains a total of 22 general cargo berths at the North and South General Cargo terminals. The roll-on/roll-off and passenger terminal contains ten berths. The Bulk Grain has seven berths, and the terminal for Bulk Edible Oil and Bulk Sugar has two berths. The Jeddah Islamic Port's terminal for Chilled and Frozen Cargo has four berths, and the terminal for Livestock has two berths.
Gulf Stevedoring Contracting Company Limited (GSCC) manages and operates the Jeddah Islamic Port's Northern Container Terminal. GSCC developed the terminal to take advantage of Jeddah Islamic Port's geographic location and its access to a strong domestic market. The Jeddah Islamic Port Northern Container Terminal covers an area of 107 hectares. Its seven berths are 250 meters (820.2 feet) each and all have alongside depth of 15 meters (49.2 feet). There are 15,888 ground slots at the Northern Container Terminal and 1800 reefer points. Reefer Gantry Platforms have been installed at the Northern Container Terminal in Jeddah Islamic Port to improve the handling of reefer containers.
The Northern Container Terminal in Jeddah Islamic Port is fully equipped to handle considerable container traffic. It has 11 quay cranes, 35 rubber-tyred gantry cranes, and two mobile cranes. The terminal also has 40 electric forklifts, five reach stackers, three roll-on/roll-off trailers, and 11 empty container handlers. Jeddah Islamic Port's Northern Container Terminal also has 132 trailers and 121 tractors. GSCC's Shift Management and Vessel/Yard Planning offices are located quayside at Jeddah Islamic Port's Northern Container Terminal, allowing them to respond quickly to customers' needs.
Jeddah Islamic Port's Southern Container Terminal is jointly operated and managed by Saudi Maintenance Company (Siyanco) and the Dubai Port Authority. The joint venture has a 20-year contract with Jeddah Islamic Port, twice the period of most contracts in the port authority's privatization program. The Southern Container Terminal covers 62 hectares and has six berths with alongside depth of 16 meters (52.5 feet).
The flagship of Saudia Arabia's Jeddah Islamic Port, the Red Sea Gateway Terminal (RSGT), covers 50 hectares and contains four berths, including a separate feeder berth. The RSGT is a state-of-the-art fully-automated facility with a dedicated 300-meter (984.2-foot) wide deep-water channel that can support next-generation cargo vessels. It has a stacking yard with capacity for 70 thousand TEUs and 1680 reefer points.
Jeddah Islamic Port's RSGT is served by the biggest state-of-the-art ZPMC quay cranes and rubber-tyred gantry cranes in the world. The RSGT in Jeddah Islamic Port also has six 85-ton tandem quay cranes, two 61-ton twin quay cranes, and two 45-ton quay cranes. The RSGT has 24 40-ton single lift yard cranes and two 50-ton twin lift yard cranes. It has eight 45-ton reach stackers, and two 8-ton single-lift and six 10-ton double-lift empty container handlers. The RSGT in Jeddah Islamic Port is served by 75 trailers and 75 65-ton tractors.
Also managed by the Slyanco/DP joint venture and adjacent to the RSGT is the Saudi Trade and Export Development Company (TUSDEER), a fully-integrated logistics hub and Jeddah Islamic Port's only free-trade bonded export zone. TUSDEER started operating in 2009 to support international trade and local business. It is Saudia Arabia's first build-operate-transfer (BOT) project, and it is redefining terminal operations for the entire Red Sea Basin. Jumping from 14 vessels and 16 thousand TEUs in January 2010 to 64 vessels in late 2011, TUSDEER supports eight important global shipping lines serving the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. In June 2011, TUSDEER reached a record one million TEUs.
Jeddah Islamic Port's Bulk Cargo Terminal is managed and operated by AJWA Port Services. Over its lifetime of 11 years, the terminal has handled over 35 million tons of grain. AJWA's rice storage and processing facilities began processing and packing in 1995. With one berth and 24-hour operations, the Bulk Cargo Terminal in Jeddah Islamic Port has silos with capacity for 120 thousand tons of cargo. AJWA Port Services offers a wide range of services including bulk unloading and storage, bulk load-out, bagging, cleaning and aspiration, and fumigation. In addition to warehousing and logistics, the company offers inland transport and transshipment services.
Mansour Al-Musaid Company operates the Jeddah Islamic Port's Southern General Cargo Terminal and Livestock Terminal as well as the Passenger Terminal. The terminal includes four berths for containers.
The Northern General Cargo Terminal in Jeddah Islamic Port is managed and operated by Universal Technical Company. The terminal has ten berths ranging from a length of 250 meters (820.2 feet) with alongside depth of 11 and 13.4 meters (36.1 and 44 feet) to a length of 110 meters (360.9 feet) with alongside depth of 7.8 meters (25.6 feet).
The Chilled and Frozen Cargo Terminal in Jeddah Islamic Port is operated by United National Marine Projects Company Limited, a joint concessionary between Jeddah Islamic Port and Mansour Al Mosaid Company. The reefer cargo terminal has four berths with a total length of 760 meters (2.5 thousand feet). The cold stores at the terminal have capacity for 2100 cubic meters. The chillers have capacity for 2600 cubic meters. The deep freezers have capacity for 4100 cubic meters.
Founded in 1976, Globe Marine Services Company operates the Jeddah Islamic Port's Roll-on/Roll-off Terminal.
The Saudi Landbridge Project is a planned railway linking Jeddah Islamic Port as the western terminus to Damman as the eastern terminus. To be used primarily for freight, the railway will connect Jeddah Islamic Port with the country's capital, Riyadh. While the initial lines will be single track, the infrastructure will be designed for an upgrade to dual track.
The King Fahad Ship Repair Yard in Jeddah Islamic Port is operated by Bakri International Energy Company Limited. The shipyard is a modern facility that maintains and repairs vessels and builds small craft. The yard contains two floating docks that can handle vessels to 45 thousand tons. It also has two 170-meter (557.7-foot) long berths that can accommodate vessels to 60 thousand tons.
Jeddah Islamic Port has a large marine fleet that includes salvage tugboats, a buoy-laying vessel, marine vessels that fight pollution, and a fire-fighting boat. Other vessels in the fleet are dedicated for pilotage, collecting garbage, and mooring vessels. The marine tower in Jeddah Islamic Port controls vessel traffic with the latest wire and wireless communication equipment.
Jeddah Islamic Port has a wide range of workshops to support port operations and customers. These include seven cargo-handling workshops, one workshop for marine equipment, and one workshop each for civil, electrical, and electronic engineering.
Pilotage is required for all vessels over 150 net registered tons that enter, navigate within, or leave the port. Pilotage services are generally available 24 hours a day, although pilotage for tankers is only available from 7am until 4pm. Pilots board vessels using the north approach channel to reach the terminal about 1.6 kilometers (one mile) northwest of the Jeddah Islamic Port's Shib Qahan Lighted Beacon. Pilots board vessels using the south approach channel about 2.1 kilometers (1.3 miles) west of Jeddah Islamic Port's Ash Shibayn.