Until 2003, Peru's Ministry of Transport and Communications (Spanish) set port infrastructure policy, and the Empresa Nacional de Puertos SA (Spanish) (ENAPU) was responsible for port operations, including the Port of Callao. In 2003, the New National Port System Law provided the institutional framework for private sector investments in the country's ports. The law created the National Port Authority to plan port development and public-private investments.
ENAPU was created in 1970 to manage, operate, and maintain docks and terminals in Peru's ports. The 2003 National Port System Law intended to promote port development and competitiveness, facilitate multi-modal transportation, modernize ports, and develop supply chains. ENAPU is a public agency under the Ministry of Transport and Communications.
The 2003 legislation made ENAPU the administrator for publicly-owned ports, focusing on three business lines. The Maritime Business line includes docking / undocking ships, towing ships, and boat rentals. The Port Business line encompasses services involving the use of docks and berths. The Storage line includes cargo-handling services, consolidation and deconsolidation, transfer, and storage as well as the use of alternative areas and rental of equipment.
Today, ENAPU encourages private investment in the Port of Callao and other ports and coordinates public and private interests involved in port-related activities and services. ENAPU seeks to strengthen the Port of Callao's competitive position as globalization progresses and to further develop the export sector.
The Port of Callao is Peru's biggest and most important port. As part of the Lima metropolitan area, the Port of Callao is a key part of the country's commercial network and a major distribution center for imports and exports. The Port of Callao handles about 20% of all ocean-borne cargo in Peru.
In 2007, the Port of Callao handled 16.4 million metric tons of cargo, including 9.6 million tons of imports, 5.4 million tons of exports, 920.8 thousand tons of transshipments, and 440.7 tons of cabotage. This included one million TUEs of containerized cargo moving through the Port of Callao.
The entry channel to the Port of Callao is 180 meters (590 feet) wide and can accommodate ships with draft of from 9.1 meters (30 feet) to 10.4 meters (34 feet) at high tide. Mooring depths in the Port of Callao range from 8.2 meters (27 feet) to 11.3 meters (37 feet).
The Port of Callao covers a land area of 47.3 hectares, and it contains eight docks and 18 docking facilities that serve container ships, bulk carriers, roll-on/roll-off vessels, oil tankers, general cargo ships, and passenger ships. The Port of Callao contains 3.6 kilometers (2.3 miles) of moorings with depths of up to 11 meters (36 feet). The Port of Callao devotes an area of 26.4 hectares, including 2.1 hectares of covered facilities, for cargo storage. The Port of Callao has 24.3 hectares for storage of containers. The Port of Callao has three silos with capacity for almost 25.8 metric tons of grains.
Loading services in the Port of Callao are provided by ENAPU and private companies. Together, they provide container-handling equipment that includes 14 reach stackers, 26 terminal trucks, and six mobilizers in the Port of Callao. They also provide 28 tractors and elevators and three cranes.
Jetty No. 1 in the Port of Callao is 182.8 meters (600 feet) long and 30.5 meters (100 feet) wide. The jetty contains two moorings, each with berthing distance of 182.8 meters (600 feet) and alongside depth of 9.8 meters (32 feet). Jetty No. 2 is 182.8 meters long and 86 meters (282 feet) wide. The Port of Callao's Jetty No. 2 has two moorings, each with berthing distance of 182.8 meters and alongside depth of 10.1 meters (33 feet).
The Port of Callao's Jetty No. 3 is 182.8 meters long and 86 meters wide. It has two moorings, each with berthing distance of 182.8 meters and alongside depth of 10.1 meters. Jetty No. 4 in the Port of Callao is 182.8 meters long and 30.5 meters wide. It has two moorings, each with berthing distance of 182.8 meters and alongside depth of 10.1 meters.
The North Jetty in the Port of Callao is 390 meters (1280 feet) long and 182.8 meters (599.7 feet) wide. It contains five mooring stations. Moorings A and B have alongside depth of 10.7 meters (35 feet). Mooring A has berthing distance of 178 meters (584.0 feet), and Mooring B has berthing distance of 212 meters (695.5 feet). Moorings C and D at the Port of Callao's North Jetty have alongside depth of 11 meters (36 feet). Mooring C has berthing distance of 182.8 meters, and Mooring D has berthing distance of 209 meters (685.7 feet). Mooring E has berthing distance of 181.0 meters (593.8 feet) with alongside depth of 10.4 meters (34 feet).
The Port of Callao has 5.2 acres of covered warehouse space. This includes the Port of Callao's Warehouse No. 6 (2420 square meters or 26.0 thousand square feet) for logistics. Warehouse No. 7 (3721 square meters or 40.1 thousand square feet) is dedicated to imports, and Warehouse No. 8 (3716 square meters or 40.0 thousand square feet). Warehouses 9 and 10 in the Port of Callao are dedicated to general cargo and cover a combined area of 7238 square meters (77.9 thousand square feet). Warehouse No. 11 is used for Port of Callao customs activities. It covers 4080 square meters (43.9 thousand square feet).
The Port of Callao contains four open areas totaling 11 hectares for storing containers. These include Area No. 1 (1.8 hectares), Area No. 2 (4.9 hectares), Area No. 4 (3.2 hectares), and Area No. 6 (1.1 hectares). There are three annexes in the Port of Callao with a combined area of 6.4 acres. Annex No. 8 is used for containers, and it covers 1.7 acres. Annex No. 9 is used for vehicles and equipment, and it covers 3.0 acres. Annex No. 10 is used to consolidate cargoes, and it covers 1.8 acres. The Port of Callao also has a closed warehouse with capacity for 25.8 thousand tons of grains. The Port of Callao can discharge 1100 tons of grain per hour.
The Port of Callao also contains four courtyards for containers that cover a total area of 20.9 acres. Courtyard No. 1 covers 9.6 acres. Courtyard No. 2 is located at Jetty No. 2 and covers 2.3 acres. Courtyard No. 3 is located at Jetty No. 3 and covers 2.3 acres. Located at Jetty No. 5, Courtyard No. 5 covers 6.8 acres.
The Port of Callao is well-equipped to handle the full range of cargoes. It operates eight tugboats with from 170 to 1600 horsepower. The Port of Callao has 12 30-ton tractors, 19 elevators with capacity for from 0.7 to 3.5 tons, two bobcats, and nine cranes with capacity for from 16 to 50 tons. Container-handling equipment in the Port of Callao includes ten handlers for full containers with capacity for from 32 to 45 tons and three empty handlers with capacities from 3 to 12 tons. The Port of Callao has a 210-ton locomotive and 42 line cars with capacity for from 10 to 50 tons. Furthermore, the Port of Callao has 77 trucks with capacities of 15 and 28 tons.
The Port of Callao has 3500 meters (11.8 thousand feet) in five pipelines at Jetty No. 7 dedicated to the shipment and discharge of fuels. Separate pipelines are dedicated to "white products" like gasoline, kerosene, solvents, and turbo. A separate pipeline is dedicated to diesel kerosene and solvents. One pipeline is dedicated for liquefied petroleum gas, propane, and butane. Another pipeline is used for chemical products, acrylonitrile, dometil normide, methane, and methanol. The final pipeline is dedicated for "black products" like petroleum and asphalt.
In early 2011, APM Terminals won the concession to operate the North Pier Terminal in the Port of Callao. APM is the majority shareholder of the terminal, and its partners are Callao Port Holdings BV and Peru's Central Portuaria. The North Pier Terminal is a multi-purpose terminal that handles both containers and general cargoes like metals, fertilizers, grains, chemicals, coal, machinery, and vegetable and fish oils.
APM also operates inland cargo services through its Callao and Paita Almacenes de Contenedores Sudamerica (ALCONSA) in Peru. ALCONSA is a joint venture between APM, Callao Port Holdings, and Central Portuaria.
APM Terminals Callao plans to modernize and expand the terminal so that it becomes a model for other port operations in South America. In early 2013, APM Terminal Callao announced started work on the first phase of its North Pier Terminal expansion. In 2013, the North Pier Terminal had capacity for 900 thousand TEUs and eight million tons of non-containerized cargo. When the first expansion phase is completed, this Port of Callao terminal will have capacity for 1.5 million TEUs of containerized cargo. In 2022, the terminal will have capacity for 2.9 million TEUs and 9.9 million tons of non-containerized cargo.
The terminal had a depth of 11 meters (36.1 feet) in 2011, but it will have 16 meter (52.5 foot) draft by 2022. In addition, APM plans to expand the existing grain silo with a 285-meter (935-foot) berth for bulk cargo and add a second silo and grain conveyor belt in 2022. Today, the North Pier Terminal has two Panamax cranes today. By 2022, this Port of Callao terminal will be equipped with 12 post-Panamax, three Panamax, and four mobile cranes. APM will also increase the number of rubber tyred gantry cranes from two in 2011 to 38 in 2022.
DP World Callao (Spanish) operates the Muelle Sur (South Pier) Terminal in the Port of Callao to handle containers. The private terminal began operating in 2010 with state-of-the-art technology and advanced security systems. The Port of Callao's South Pier serves local customers in the import and export of products as well as transfer operations for the world's leading cruise lines.
The South Pier in the Port of Callao has berthing distance of 650 meters (2132 feet) with alongside depth of 16 meters (52.5 feet). The terminal includes a 5.2-acre container yard with capacity for 850 thousand TEUs per year and 240 mobile plugs for storing refrigerated containers.
The Port of Callao's South Pier container yard is equipped with six post-Panamax gantry cranes, 18 rubber tyred gantry cranes, 30 chassis and trailers, two reach stackers, and two empty container handlers. The terminal gate has six incoming lanes and four outgoing lanes for containers.
DP World Callao is planning to expand the South Pier in the Port of Callao. It will add 310 meters (1017 feet) of berth, three post-Panamax cranes, and yard cranes.
In mid-2012, the Port of Callao announced the National Ports Authority's approval for the construction of a terminal for mineral concentrates to be completed by late 2013. The terminal will have capacity to handle the current three million tons of minerals per year. It will also handle the additional 800 thousand tons per year that will be generated by the Toromocho de Chinalco mine after it begins production. With these improvements, the Port of Callao expects to handle an increase of 30% in the volume of minerals.
Located just 14 kilometers (8.7 miles) west of the City of Lima, the Port of Callao is home to Cruise Portao, Lima's main cruise terminal. The Port of Callao's modern cruise terminal is located at the North Pier Terminal. In addition to hosting major cruise lines like Royal Caribbean and Princes Cruises, the Port of Callao cruise terminal serves many local cruise ships that offer a variety of packages to visitors.
The Port of Callao is located beside Peru's Central Highway, which connects it with the country's interior regions. It also has immediate access to the Panamericana Highway that links Peru's north and south regions.
The Central Railroad of Peru serves the Port of Callao and connects with Lima and interior areas, crossing the Andes Mountains.
The Jorge Chavez International Airport is less than five kilometers (three miles) from the Port of Callao and provides shippers an immediate link with international shipping alternatives.